History of Tuglaq Dynasty- Firozshah Tughlaq and Muhammad bin Tughluq
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.
Tughlaqansh – Geassudin Tughlaq
Gazi Malik sat on the throne of Delhi under the name of Gayasuddin Tughluq on 8 September 1320 AD. It adopted a policy of generosity opposite to Alauddin.
Gahasudin Tughlaq continued the ‘daag’ and ‘chehra’ practice so that the efficiency of the army continued.
Gyasuddin Tughlaq established a new town named ‘Tughlaqabad’.
- The famous Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya had said in relation to Geassudin Tughlaq – Delhi is very far away. Gyasuddin Tughluq was killed by falling off a wooden building built by Jauna Khan while returning from Bengal campaign in 1325.
History of Muhammad bin Tughluq
After Gayasudin’s death, Jauna Khan, sat on Delhi’s throne, holding the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Muhammad bin Tughluq transferred his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in 1327 AD and named it Daulatabad.
- Muhammad bin Tughluq established a new agricultural department, ‘Diwan-e-Kohi’ for the development of agriculture. In 1329 AD, he introduced bronze coins worth of the silver coins, which were unsuccessful. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was also called the crazy king.
- Muhammad bin Tughluq appointed Ibn Batuta, a resident of Moroccan, Delhi’s Kazi. He sent Ibn Batuta to China in 1342.
Muhhamad Bin Tugluq established a city named Jahapanah near Delhi.
- Muhammad bin Tughluq received the acceptance letter from Abbasi Khalif in Egypt.
- Muhammad bin Tughluq died on March 20, 1351, due to a fever near Thatta.
History of Firozshah Tughlaq
After the death of Muhammad bin Tughluq, his brother Feroze Shah Tughlaq sat on the throne of Delhi. Firoz Shah Tughlaq declared himself a representative of the Khalifa of Egypt.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq removed 24 annoying taxes and taxed only four – Kharaj, Khams, Jijiya, and Zakaat. Later, it also imposed an irrigation tax called ‘Haq-e-Sharb’ which was 1/10 of the produce.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a donation department named ‘Deewane-e-Khairat’.
- Firoz Shah taxed Jajiya on Tughlaq Brahmins and he was the first Muslim ruler to do so. Firoz Shah Tughlaq procured and installed two historical pillars in Delhi, produced by Ashoka in Khizrababad and Meerut.
- The highest number of slaves was in his reign. ‘Deewane-e-Bandagan’ was established to take care of these slaves.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq established cities such as Ferozabad, Hisar, Jaunpur.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq planted 1200 orchards around Delhi.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography, titled ‘Futahat-e-Firoz Shahi’.
- Feroze Shah Tughlaq died on 20 September 1388.
- The last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty was Nasiruddin Mahmood Tughlaq.